Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) globally affects 18–20% of adults over the age of 65 years. In the Philippines, diabetes is currently one of the most pressing public health concerns with a 2009 cohort study showing a 9-year incidence of Type 2 DM at 16.3% and a prevalence of 28.0%. The Philippines is also considered one of the diabetes hotspots in the Western Pacific Region, where the disease is approaching epidemic proportions. Further, diabetes is also associated with several complications such as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent and dangerous complications of diabetes mellitus type 2, affecting about one-third of the patients with Type 2 DM. The management of diabetic patients who belong to special populations such as the elderly and those with chronic kidney disease involves specific characteristics that affect both metabolic control and therapeutic measures. Treating diabetes mellitus in elderly patients is more complicated and there are more limitations that should be considered as compared to the adult population due to a higher risk of hypoglycemia and its serious consequences for the elderly. Further, renal function in the elderly may be compromised, not only due to old age, but also due to the coexistence of diabetes. This course aims to educate pharmacists on the special considerations, therapeutic measures or adjustments needed in optimizing the health outcomes of diabetes patients who belong to these special populations.